John Scudder, Son of Thomas Scudder (T) of Horton Kirby, Kent and Salem, Mass:
Married Mary King and They Were among Earliest Settlers of Southold, Huntington and Newtown, Long Island.
By Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian and Clive Connor, Foundation member
© 2021 Scudder Association Foundation, All rights reserved.
John Scudder grew up in western Kent, England, between the power centers of British political and ecclesiastical might at London and Canterbury. In America, John was an early settler of four communities that were within five to ten years of establishment or less. By being in the right places to observe key figures in the struggle for basic religious and civil rights in both countries, John was an eyewitness to historically important events during tumultuous times on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. His history reveals his nonconformist tendencies that explain his relocations.
In the Fall of 1637, John2 Scudder (Thomas1) immigrant from England to Salem, Massachusetts with his parents and his four siblings during the great Puritan migration of 1630–1641. This was two years after his same named cousin John2 Scudder (John1) arrived earlier at Boston in 1635. Cousin John2 Scudder first lived at Charlestown and then settled at Barnstable [ John Scudder of Barnstable],  where records of Charlestown and Barnstable clearly distinguish him from John2 Scudder of Salem. Nevertheless, because they had the same name and were very near the same age, there are printed and online sources, even recent ones, that have mixed the identities of these two men even though their localities and histories in America were very different. The fact that they had at least four children who shared the same names has compounded the confusion.
Horton Kirby, Kent, Village of John Scudder’s Youth
Born say 1619/20, to Thomas2 (T) and Elizabeth (Unknown) Scudder, John2 Scudder, spent his youth in the land of his fathers, located in and around the tiny country village of Horton Kirby, Kent County, England where his yeomen grandfather and other forbears had lived.
Horton Kirby Village Sign
John2’s family was not nobility but of a highly respectable yeoman class owning considerable property in the environs of western Kent County, lying in the eastern outskirts of London. His village was conveniently enough located that he must have witnessed the parading of monarchs and religious pilgrims between the centers of power at Canterbury and London. Even his own neighborhood and extended family were affected by the Puritan movement to reform the Church of England and to win religious and civil rights. How much contact John2 Scudder had with his English family after his immigration is unknown, although fifteen years after he left England, John2 and his siblings were given a legacy by his uncle Rev. Henry1 Scudder as noted in his will.
John2‘s grandfather, HenryA Scudder, died at Horton Kirby in the prime of his life, sometime between 29 September 1594 and 5 November 1595 [Will of Henry Skudder], leaving his wife and minor children with enough property to maintain their situation the best they could. The eldest son, Henry1, was fortunate to study at Cambridge to become a famous Anglican minister who was sympathetic to the Puritan movement and to the Presbyterian party. John2’s uncle, the Rev. Henry1 Scudder, was a prominent player in the groundswell to free the people of the abuses of power by monarch and bishop alike and served for a season in the Assembly of Westminster Divines. Young John2 would have been well aware of the turbulent English politics of his time, even in his own village area, and the tug-of-war to determine the character of the State Church. Whether John2 Scudder followed his famous uncle in his Presbyterian inclinations for at least some of his life seems likely, but the scope of his religious persuasions and politics are not fully known except that he exhibited a nonconformist streak as evidenced by later Quaker activity. Suffice it to say, after John2 Scudder arrived in Salem, Massachusetts, he had a front row seat there to observe skirmishes for religious liberty caused by dissenters in and around Salem.
John2 Scudder (Thomas1) is considered second generation and he is not considered as “the” immigrant ancestor of his descendants, but he was every bit as much an immigrant as was his father Thomas1 (T) or his cousins John2 (J) and Elizabeth2 (E), immigrant ancestors of the three predominant Scudder family lines in America. Sources for diagram are cited in these articles.
Those in yellow Are the family members who immigrated to America in the Puritan migration.
Designated by the Scudder Association as the second child of Thomas1 (T), John2’s exact birth year is not known but it is estimated that he was between 17 to 20 years of age when he stepped into America. John2’s father Thomas1 (T), referred to as Goodman Scudder, entered the Salem town records when he received two quarter acres of marsh and meadow land at Salem on 25 December 1637. This was a month after the religious reformer Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson was banished from Massachusetts and only about two years after the Salem community and its congregation were embroiled in the Roger1 Williams controversy. John2 Scudder’s father in-law, William1 King, was a disciple of Anne Hutchinson, the famed advocate for the right to act in accord with the Holy Spirit and personal conscience. In 1637, Mr. King was one of the followers of Anne Hutchinson and he was disarmed along with seventy-four others for his involvement in her religious faction. When Anne was banished from Massachusetts, a number of her adherents followed her to Rhode Island but William King, Sr. remained at Salem. King had arrived at Salem in 1635, in time to also hear the preaching of Roger Williams in the local church and his views about “soul liberty.” Williams was banished in 1636, after which he left to found Providence, Rhode Island.
The Salem Years
About 1642, John2 Scudder married Mary2 King at Salem. Her father William King’s intestate proceedings in 1650 specifies their relationship. Their first child Samuel3 was born say 1643.
Salem records show that John2 Scudder owned land near his father-in-law William1 King. Salem records state that on 10 August 1642, John2 Scudder was granted ½ acre “to build a house on and for other uses near his ten–acre lot in King’s Cove” which he already owned.
A few months later, John2’s father Thomas (T) on 23 Jan 1642/3, was also “granted old goodman Scudder” and others “ten acres each, all these 10 acre lots to be laid out nere to brother Kings lott” placing John2 and his father both in near proximity to John2’s father-in-law if they weren’t already.
In 1646, more is revealed about John2’s location near Ryall’s side. “John Batchelor and John Marston and before the lot of John Scudder, where he dwelleth, shall be given’ to those three men.”
By 1647, John2 and Mary Scudder were listed on the records of the Salem Congregational Church.
First Church in Salem
According to historian David Hackett Fischer, in his seminal work, Albion’s Seed, Four British Folkways in America, the requirements for church membership in Massachusetts were “very rigorous—more so than in the Calvinist churches of Europe. Even so, a majority of adults in most Massachusetts towns were willing and able to meet them.” Even in Salem, Massachusetts, like other seaport towns where there were lower rates of church membership, “more than 50 percent of taxable men joined the church in the mid-seventeenth century. Those who did not belong were mostly young men without property.”
This pattern of church membership reveals a vital truth about New England’s great migration. It tells us that the religious purposes of the colony were not confined to a small ‘Puritan oligarchy,’ as some historians still believe, and that the builders of the Bay Colony did not come over to ‘catch fish,’ as materialists continue to insist. The spiritual purposes of the colony were fully shared by most men and women in Massachusetts. Here was a fact of high importance for the history of their region.
The religious beliefs of these Puritans were highly developed before they came to America. Revisionist historians notwithstanding, these people were staunch Calvinists.
…In summary, by comparison with other emigrant groups in American history, the great migration to Massachusetts was a remarkably homogeneous movement of English Puritans who came from the middle ranks of their society, and traveled in family groups. The heads of these families tended to be exceptionally literate, highly skilled, and heavily urban in their English origins. They were a people of substance, character, and deep personal piety. The special quality of New England’s regional culture would owe much to these facts.
Later entries on the church records show the christenings of John2 and Mary’s daughters Mary3, Elizabeth3 and Hannah3. Their two sons, Samuel3 and John3, were born before John2 and Mary were official members. The Congregational way was not to baptize children of nonmembers.
The 1650 Salem court records reveal that John2 Scudder’s occupation was a currier: “John Scuddr freed from training on account of his trade of a currier.” Scudder Searches describes that John2 was a currier, a “(dresser of leather) a trade he actively pursued in Salem. During June 1650, he was regularly excused from [military] training because of his trade, since leather might spoil after a day’s absence. He was obliged, however, to pay an 18 pence fine for each day of training he had to miss.”
Image from “The Worshipful Company of Curriers”
As a currier, John2 Scudder would have taken the hides from the tanner and specialized in the dressing and the finishing of the leather to prepare it for the saddle-maker or the shoemaker or other craftsmen to produce a finished product. Whether John2’s financial circumstances required him to learn this trade in England or until after his immigration to Salem is uncertain. There was in England a guild system for curriers to train them in the craft and these guilds were often feeders for the movement to insist upon greater religious rights. There is a tantalizing record of interest in the London Apprenticeship Abstracts to share if people will not scoop it up as proven fact for it will be necessary to obtain a copy of the full record to be able to judge whether it applies to this John2 Scudder or to one of the many other John Scudders in Kent to whom it might also apply. The abstract mentions a John Scudder who was apprenticed to the Currier Livery company in London in 1632 stating that he was a son of Thomas of Eynsford, carpenter, and was bound to a Richard Baldwyne, 4 July 1632, Curriers’ Company.
There is no corroborating proof that has been found that Thomas1 (T), the immigrant, ever lived at Eynsford. Nor is there any proof that he was a carpenter or any kind of skilled tradesman. While Eysnford, Kent is less than 3 miles from the center of Horton Kirby and Thomas1’s forbears previously had land at Eynsford, there is no proof yet that this is the same Thomas1 (T).
Horton Kirby to Eynsford
As previously stated in the Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, multiple generations of various Scudder families from the late 1400s from different villages in Kent all repeatedly used the same given names and not all of their records are out in public view. Also, to be considered is the claim that the Scudder surname may originally be derived from the leather trade. “To scud” is a “process used in leather manufacturing, the process of removing scud by scraping with a knife” such as would be the task of a currier. In J. B. Dorrinton’s Scudder Family Records, he states:
The modern name Scudder is believed to derive from the occupation of a scudder or skudder—which is an old term for persons employed in an aspect of the tanning trade. This was someone involved in the treatment of hides, ‘skud’ being an old English word for the removal of hairs, dirt, etc., from skins with the aid of a small knife.
One may appropriately ask, “Was the Scudder surname derived from this occupation and, if so, might other Scudder families in Kent also have been engaged in this trade?” It is known that John2 Scudder’s brother Thomas2 (Thomas1) was a tanner when he lived at Huntington, Long Island, with tanning mills “facing the water in the area now called Tanyard Lane. Here, leather was cured and sent by wagon to a drum factory on Rogues Path to be transformed into drums for military use all over the world.” The fact that both John2 and Thomas2 worked in leather trades may be significant in searching for evidence if Thomas1 (T) had a trade in England besides being a landlord and working his modest amount of land at Salem, Massachusetts. It is yet to be proven that either John2 or Thomas2 served apprenticeships in England to practice their occupations.
Although John2 Scudder had left his homeland in England, and likely missed it and the extended family he had left behind, he was fortunate in that he was surrounded at Salem by his parents and siblings and his wife’s extended family. Salem records show the locations of Scudder and King family members and close friends like the Conklins. Perley’s History of Salem cites:
P. 192 notes 30 May 1649 that Thomas Scudder, sr., with John Conclyne and Ananias Conclyne received six acres of meadow near Mr. Corwyn’s meadow.
The Conklins later went with Thomas1’s three sons to New York. Perley’s history shows on page 203 of Perley that brothers-in-law Henry Bartholomew and William Scudder for a time lived adjacent to each other because the town record shows that its council gave “William Scuder thirty acres by Mr. Bartholomew’s.”
By about 1640, Henry1 Bartholomew had married John’s sister Elizabeth2 Scudder, born say 1622. Bartholomew‘s land was also located near John2 Scudder’s brother-in-law on the King side of the family. P. 212, “Feb. 13, 1651–2, the seven men granted to John Swasey, forty acres of land to be laid out near Henry Bartholmew’s farm.” A footnote to this entry states: “John Swasey lived on the south side of what is now Derby Street, in the rear of No. 99 on said street. He married Katherine King; and conveyed the house and lot to his wife’s mother, widow Dorothy King, March 15, 1652–3, removing from town.”
The names of John2 Scudder’s siblings, the children of Thomas1 (T) and Elizabeth ___? Scudder are known because they are mentioned in Thomas1 (T)’s will. Perley’s transcription of his will provides details:
Will of Thomas Scudder, proved 29 June 1658, Salem, Massachusetts
In his account, Sidney Perley states:
In [Thomas’s] will, dated 30 September 1657 and probated 29 June 1658, he left all his possessions to Elizabeth, upon her death to be divided equally among the four children who survived him plus his grandson, Thomas, son of William, deceased. According to the inventory, his estate was valued at a respectable £73, including real estate (house and orchard) valued at £20. Elizabeth died September 1666, Salem. In the inventory, her estate (after debt) was valued at £29. 
Two entries in the Essex County Grantors’ Index are of interest. Soon after the death of her husband Thomas2 1(T)’s widow Elizabeth sold land to her neighbor William Trask:
1657. 7 mo. 6 1657. Elizabeth Scudder, grantor to grantee William Trasker. 4 122 Salem.
Although John2 Scudder and his brothers, Thomas2 and Henry2, left Salem by 1652, John2 did not sell his land at Salem until more than a decade later:
1665. 31 May 1665. John Scudder, grantor to grantee John Bacheldor. 2 102 Salem.
Within a couple of years after the death of John2’s father-in-law, William1 King in 1650, John2 Scudder and his brothers Thomas2 and Henry2 Scudder, and his King family brothers–in-law, John Swayze and Richard Brown migrated to Southold, Long Island, soon to be followed by the widow Mrs. Dorothy King, her son Samuel2 King and her daughter Deliverance,2 and Mehitable2 if she was still alive. Dorothy’s sons William2 and John2 King remained at Salem where they practiced the cooper’s trade as their father had before them.
The Migration to Southold, Long Island
Along with a number of other people from Salem, John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder removed to Southold, Long Island by 1652, where they lived until 1657. A map included in Southold Town Records by J. Wickham Case, shows the “family enclave” in the 1650s. John2 and Henry2 Scudder lived near the west end, and their brother Thomas2, Jr. whose second wife was Mary2 (Ludlam) Scudder, to their north. Samuel2 King (and wife Frances2 Ludlam) located two lots to the east of John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder. Nearby were Mary2 (King) Scudder’s sisters Katharine2 (King) Swasey, Deliverance2 (King) Tuthill, and Hannah2 (King) Brown and their husbands. This King extended family remained tight knit. Being neighbors, as well as relatives, the younger generation in the Scudder, King and Ludlam extended families would have been acquainted before they began to spread across several Long Island towns, almost the length of the island from near the eastern end to the west to what is now part of the borough of Queens. There is no further record for Mehitable2 King as an adult or a death date. Of William1 King’s other children, all but Samuel2 and Deliverance2 were married at Salem. William2 Jr. and John2 remained at Salem but all of the others migrated to Southold, Long Island. The emigration record for the Kings supplies all their ages except Samuel2’s. From Mehitable2 to Deliverance2, the baptism dates were recorded at Salem. The facts portrayed in this diagram are confirmed in the sketch of William King in the Great Migration. For further detail and sources for the King family, including discussion of the speculative error and negative evidence about Mrs. Dorothy King’s alleged maiden name, see From Conscience to Liberty: Diverse Long Island Families in a Crucible that Gave Rise to Religious Liberty.
Huntington, Long Island
In 1655, on the behalf of men from the town of Southold, John2 Scudder was one of the original purchasers of Setauket (Brookhaven), along with his brother-in-law John Swesie (Swazey). Perhaps this endeavor introduced the idea of making a new town at nearby Huntington for those from Southold who were looking to leave.
As shown by the will of Jeffrey Estey, father-in-law of John2 Scudder’s brother Henry2 Scudder, the three Scudder brothers and their relatives had removed to Huntington, now in Suffolk County, by 4 January 1657/8. John Baylis or Bayley was a neighbor in Southold to whom John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder, and Thomas2 and Mary2 (Ludlam) Scudder, (sister to Samuel2 King’s wife), had sold land, but Baylis too soon sold the land and followed them to Huntington as did John Conklin, Jr. It was in Huntington that Thomas2 and Henry2 Scudder put down their roots. Future articles about Thomas2 Scudder and Henry2 Scudder and their posterities will give more details about the Scudder family’s long history at Huntington.
John and Mary (King) Scudder Made Another Move to Newtown
In about 1659, John2 and Mary Scudder chose to leave John2’s siblings in Huntington and the English jurisdiction to move thirty miles west to Maspeth (also known as Middelburgh), New Netherland. This town was later renamed Newtown after the English takeover in 1664 and is now in Queens County. There John2 and Mary Scudder finally put down permanent roots and raised their family. Their arrival in town was only three or so years after the town was officially established by 1656. In the cases of Brookhaven, Huntington and Newtown, John2’s name is on the records within about the first five years of the founding of these towns. With Salem and Southold, it was within about the first ten years of their establishment. This suggests character traits of John2 and Mary Scudder which include not being afraid of hard work, resilience and bravery and not shrinking from making a change if it was right for their family. John2 and Mary Scudder can correctly be considered pioneers and were sturdy enough for the difficult undertakings of repeatedly starting over in the building of their homes and farms in untamed wilderness, three times within one decade. Although John2 had now removed some thirty miles from his brothers, he retained contact with his family and some former neighbors. His brother Henry2 died shortly thereafter at Huntington, about 1660/1, where most of his family remained for some time as did Thomas2 Scudder and his children.
Historian Henry Stiles underscores the conditions which drove many of the English settlers to settle at New Netherland rather than under their own British government. This includes Rev. Francis Doughty, the original the Mespat patentee, who brought a group of about 100 settlers from Rhode Island in about 1641:
Religious persecution was, at this time, driving from New England, many pure-minded and gifted men, who found in New Netherland the toleration denied them by their own country and brethren. Thus, courteously treated and favored with liberal patents of land from the Dutch Government…
That settlement was destroyed in a war with Native Americans and was barely rebuilding by 1652.
John2 Scudder did not leave a diary account of why his family abruptly left Huntington and the English jurisdiction to move to New Netherland. His new village was a mixture of English and Dutch Calvinists with a small enclave of new Quaker converts. Local histories reveal conditions and events which suggest that John2 did not like living in an atmosphere of religious persecution, especially when it produced physical whippings or other vicious attacks, for each of his moves from Salem, Southold and Huntington occurred shortly after such events had taken place. It should also be remembered that he had religious nonconformist tendencies.
Only two years before John2 family’s move from Huntington to Maspeth, also known as the English Kills, in 1657, Long Island’s earliest Friends traveling ministers had begun to reap their harvest among English families of Long Island from the western to the eastern edges. Whether John2 chose Maspeth because he was already sympathetic to Quaker ideas or if his sympathies developed as a result of living among Quakers is not recorded. He is not documented on early Quaker records, but a number of their earliest records did not survive. In looking for a possible motive, one should not ignore the influence on John2’s in-laws by religious reformer Anne Hutchinson, who was not a Quaker, but who advocated for the right to obey the light one receives from the Holy Spirit. That too was part of the message of the Friends although they differed in other doctrines. Before Anne, Roger Williams had had a great effect at Salem and John2’s father-in-law William1 King had been present to hear the teachings of both of these reformers who espoused their versions of “soul liberty.” After the Quaker missionaries had started preaching at Massachusetts and Long Island in 1657, several of John2 Scudder’s wife’s siblings either married those who became Friends or who had other family members who became Friends. After 1657, Mary2 (King) Scudder’s brothers, William2 King, Jr. and Samuel2 King, also openly exhibited their own Quaker sympathies.
John2 Scudder is documented on Newtown records on 4 June 1660 in a transport of land from James Reilly.
By 1661, John2 owned the water mill pond, known as Scudder’s Pond, located at the head of Newtown Creek that bordered the new town of Bushwick and emptied into the East River.
In Newtown, John2 Scudder and sons John3, Jr. and Samuel3 became associated with Quaker neighbors. Although I have yet to find John2 and John3 listed on any Quaker meeting record, two recorded incidents suggest that they followed the Quaker custom of not swearing under oath. In 1665, John testified in the New York Court of Assizes at Manhattan, on behalf of John Richbell of Oyster Bay, in a dispute that Richbell had with the town of Huntington, over ownership of Horse Neck. In testifying, John2 Scudder was “not sworn” rather than swearing under oath.
The second recorded occasion in which the Scudder family members observed the Quaker custom was in 1673 when the Dutch briefly regained control of New York and required the residents to swear an oath of allegiance to that government. Of the four citizens of Newtown who would not swear the oath, two were John3 Scudder, Jr. and his brother Samuel3 Scudder, along with neighbors John2 Way and Nathaniel2 Pettit. All but Way’s progenitors are cited as part of Anne Hutchinson’s followers at Massachusetts about thirty–five plus years earlier.
In the meantime, Capt. William Knift [sic], and some others, had been despatched [sic] to the towns and villages to administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants, and forty-eight more were sworn on the 13th of September. Four Quakers scrupled to take the oath, but promised fealty. These were Samuel Scudder, John Way, John Scudder, Jun. and Nathaniel Pettit.
On 2 October 1668, in the Minutes of the Town Courts of Newtown, Scudder’s pond was discussed as a source of illness in the town. Annals of Newtown describes the context:
Amid their honest toil the husbandmen of Newtown were not exempt from the common discouragements and afflictions incident to our nature. This fall the families about the English Kills were visited by a distressing sickness, which is supposed to have been fever and ague. A pond of stagnant water was suspected as a principal cause, and the attention of the town court being directed to it, the following order was issued on October 2d:‑
‘Whereas there hath been complaint made to this court against John Scudder, Sen. By several of the inhabitants, for making a dam, which hath, and still doth stop the passage of the water, at or near to Fowler’s Bridge or run, which is a great annoyance, and it is conceived a great cause of so much sickness among them; the court doth therefore order that the said John Scudder shall forthwith cut the said dam, whereby the said water may have free passage through it; under the penalty of five pounds sterling.’ This pond long retained the name of Scudder’s Pond, and obtained notoriety in connection with the boundary quarrel between Newtown and Bushwick. It eventually went in possession of the Schenks, who owned a grist-mill there, only the ruins of which now remain.
There is more to John2 Scudder’s life at Newtown that will be included in future articles about his children. All children introduced in this diagram were born at Salem, Massachusetts:
To Be Continued
 “Custom-House, Salem, Massachusetts,” The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Digital Collections, https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-b063-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99. (Accessed April 11, 2021.)
 “Thomas Scudder, b. 1587, Ancestor of the American Scudder (T) Line, Left England Amid Turmoil, Contention and a Little Bit of Mystery” and “If You Are An American Scudder, Which Is Your Courageous Immigrant Ancestor?” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 2, no. 1, (Spring 2020).
 “Early Life and Times of John Scudder (J), b. 1618, Strood, Kent, England; 1635 Immigrant to New England, Later Known as John Scudder of Barnstable,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 2, no. 1, (Spring 2020).
 “Thomas Scudder Did Not Marry Elizabeth Lowers! She Was Another Man’s Wife!” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 1, no. 3, (December 2019).
 David Antiss, “Horton Kirby Village Sign,” CC BY-SA 2.0, Geograph Project Collection, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Horton_Kirby_Village_Sign_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1222979.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Horton_Kirby_Village_Sign_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1222979.jpg. (Accessed 4/16/2021.)
 “The Three Sons of Henry Scudder, Yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent: A Season of Political Upheaval with Effects on Life Circumstances of Each Son,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 1, no. 2, (June 2019).
 “Will of Rev. Henry Scudder of Collingbourne Ducis, 1651,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 1, no. 2, (June 2019)
 “The 400-year-old Will of Henry Skudder, Yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent,” reprinted in Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, volume 1, no. 1, (April 2019).
 Margery Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, Diverse Long Island Families in a Crucible that Gave Rise to Religious Freedom, 1526–1664,” v. 1, Part A, (Printed by the author, 2020). Chapters 1–4, 7–8, 17–19. This work includes members of the Scudder extended family through John2‘s uncle Rev. Henry1 Scudder after the time that John2 Scudder left England.
 Source citations for all data used to compose this diagram are in these pertinent background articles from Jane Fletcher Fiske, “A New England Kinship Network,” The American Genealogist, v. 72, (1997): 285–297 and from Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, 2019 and 2020 issues. Includes those cited in endnotes, 2–4, 6–8, plus: “Scudder Association Foundation Announces New Online Journal,” v. 1, no. 1, (April 2019), This article shows why there is a need to continue to refute with the facts many errors online and in print for the American Scudder family. This article repeats the history of corrections that have been published by the Scudder Association in the 1960s, 1980s and 1990s.. “Straight from the Horse’s Mouth: Time Again to Separate Scudder Facts from Fiction,” v. 1, no. 1, (April 2019). “Our Story Begins with Henry Skudder (Scudder), Yeoman, of Horton Kirby, Kent,” v. 1, no. 1, (April 2019). “The Three Sons of Henry Scudder, Yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent: A Season of Political Upheaval with Effects on Life Circumstances of Each Son,” v. 1, no. 2, (June 2019). “The Trail of Clues to John Scudder of Barnstable’s England Identity,” v. 2, no. 1, Spring 2020. “Elizabeth Scudder, Wife of Samuel Lathrop: Early Life of Elizabeth (Scudder) Lathrop, Ancestress of the Scudder (E) Line,” v. 2, no. 2, (Fall 2020)
 “Thomas (T) of Salem,” 7. Sidney Perley, “Land Grants B,” The History of Salem, Massachusetts, v. 1, 1626–1637, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x000920352&view=1up&seq=518.
 Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, Part A, Chapter 5, “Mr. Winthrop and Mr. Williams: Dreams for an American Zion Meet Diversity; Both Men Had Notable Influence upon English Families that Settled Long Island.”
 Boyden, “Anne Hutchinson’s Influence on Early Settlers of Massachusetts and Its Spread to Many Rhode-Island and Long Island Families, Including Kings and Underhills,” From Conscience to Liberty, v. 1, Part A. William1 King was at that time a neighbor and John2 Scudder’s father-in-law to be. Wiliam1 King and his family are discussed in Part A. chapters 8 and 13 and Part B, chapters 20 and 30.
 Essex Antiquarian Quarterly Court Records, v. VII (Salem, Ma.: 1903), 26, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015030567153&view=1up&seq=48. (John2 Scudder’s marriage relationship to Mary King is mentioned.)
 Perley, History of Salem, v. 2, 127.
 Town Records of Salem, Massachusetts, v. 1, 1634–1659, (Salem, Ma.: The Essex Institute, 1868), 113.
 Perley, History of Salem, v. 2, 135–136.
 Perley, History of Salem, v. 2, p. 178.
 Richard D. Pierce, ed., The Records of the First Church in Salem, Massachusetts 1629–1736, (Essex Institute, 1974), 12, https://archive.org/details/recordsoffirstch00firs_0/page/12/mode/2up. After they removed from Salem by 1652, the word “removed” was entered into the record. The year 1647 refers to the year they joined the congregation.
 David Hackett Fischer, Albion’s Seed, Four British Folkways in America, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 21–22.
 Children of Thomas (T) and Elizabeth, The Salem Years,” Scudder Searches, Scudder Association, volume 1, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 9.
 Sidney Perley, “Salem Quarterly Court Records and Files,” The Essex Antiquarian,” v. VII, no. 1, (January 1903): v. 23, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015030567153&view=1up&seq=45.
 “Children of Thomas (T) and Elizabeth, The Salem Years,” Scudder Searches, (Summer 1989): 9. Cites source as “Files of the Quarterly Court of Essex Co, MA, 1636–1656,” (Essex Co, MA: 1911), 193.
 London Apprenticeship Abstract, 1442–1850, Livery company Currier, at Findmypast, https://www.findmypast.com/transcript?id=ORIGINS%2FLONDONAPPRENTICE%2F51156%2F125412.
 Horton Kirby to Eynsford, Google Maps.
 Scudding. Wordnik, https://www.wordnik.com/words/scudding.
 J. B. Dorrinton, Introduction, Scudder Family Records, (London, 1972). Copy in Scudder Association Archives Collection.
 “Children of Thomas (T) and Elizabeth, The Salem Years,” Scudder Searches, volume 1, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 13.
 George Wells Bartholomew, Jr., Record of the Bartholomew Family, (Austin, Tx., Published by the compiler, 1885), 43, https://archive.org/details/recordofbartholo01bart/page/n125/mode/2up?view=theater. “Henry Bartholomew, born about 1607; married about 1640, Elizabeth Scudder, and died in Salem, Mass., 22 Nov. 1692. Mrs. Elizabeth born about 1622, died 1 Sept. 1682, aet. 60; her gravestone is still standing in the old Charter Street burying ground, where his remains were probably also interred. She was daughter of Thomas Scudder of Boston [sic].”
 Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts, v. 2, (Salem: 1924), 178. Thomas (T) died April 1658 and his will names his five children.
 Ibid. George Francis Dow, Massachusetts County Court, v. 2, (1912), https://www.google.com/books/edition/Records_and_Files_of_the_Quarterly_Court/vh04AAAAIAAJ?q=&gbpv=1#f=false.
 Essex County. Grantor index. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-89ZZ-BDM?i=393&wc=MCBL-YM9%3A361613201%2C361828601&cc=2106411.
 Perley, The Essex Antiquarian, v. 7, 26.
 Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, Part B, 409–411. Cites J. Wickham Case, Southold Town Records, v. 1, (By Order of the Towns of Southold and Riverhead, 1882), v. 1, 25, 27, 28–29, 34–36, 70–72, 75, 77, 100, 463–464.
 Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration, v. 4, I–L, 174–177.
 Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, Part A, 161–163; Part B, 418–420. Also see Index.
 Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, Part B, 411–413.
 “Will of Jeffrey Este,” Charles R. Street, Huntington Town Records, including Babylon, Long Island, N.Y., 1653–1688, v. 1, (Transcribed, compiled and published by authority and at the expense of the two towns, 1887), 7–8.
 “Will of Henry Scudder, 25 January 1661/2,” in Street, 32–33.
 Henry Stiles, A History of the City of Brooklyn, 35.
 Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty, chapters 20–21 and 28–32 suggest historical context to John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder’s for their migrations along with some of their neighbors.
 Town Minutes of the Town of Newtown, 1656-1688, v. 1, (New York: Historical Records Survey, 1940–1941), 27. Transcription was a W.P.A. project.
 James Riker, Jr., Annals of Newtown, (New York: D Fanshaw, 1852), 79.
 Charles R. Street, Huntington Town Records, 1653-1688, v. 1, (Huntington: by the town, 1887), 74-75.
 See Huntington Town Records cited in previous endnote for further details about court appearance.
 Riker, Jr., 89.
 Riker, Jr., 80.
 Riker, Jr., Annals of Newtown, 94–95 and John E. Stillwell, Historical and Genealogical Miscellany, v. 3, 396. Salem Vital Records and Scudder Association Archives Collection.